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为什么二战时的日本要侵略这么多国家?

其他 大朝哥 18644浏览 0评论
对于日本,二战始于被历史学家称为”二次中日战争”的一场冲突。即二次中日战争开始于1937年初的一次被称为”卢沟桥事变”的战斗。然而,在此之前,中日之间已有多年的边境冲突,始于1931年日本入侵满洲。所以要解释日本在1941年至1945年间的行为,我们必须解释为何1931年日本要入侵满洲,并且首先我们要回到1853年。1852年前,日本还在闭关锁国。与西方之间仅限于在长崎与荷兰进行贸易往来。另外,禁止西方人进入国内,并且西方影响也极小。1853年,美国海军派瑞准将的军舰驶入现在我们所称的东京湾。日本人要求他离开,去往长崎。他没有重视这个指令,因此被日本舰队围困。
原文标题:Why was Japan so aggressive during World War II?
来源:https://www.quora.com/
译文来源:www.ltaaa.com
I’m looking more for the psychological reasoning. Japan, of course, attacked the United States, but it also conquered a vast amount of territory in Asia. Why? It wasn’t just because they wanted more land… A Japanese friend of mine explained to me how most of the other Asian nations (China, Korea, the Philippines, etc…) were already heavily controlled via Western colonization when the Japanese assault began. Were the Japanese just pushing back?
我在寻找更多心理方面的原因。诚然,日本袭击了美国,但也侵占了亚洲国家大片领土。为何要这样?并非仅仅因为日本需要更多的土地。我的一位日本朋友向我解释道,日本开始侵略时,亚洲其他大部分国家(中国、朝鲜、菲律宾等)都已如此深受西方殖民主义列强的摆布。当时日本的侵略行动是为了抵抗西方的殖民吗?

为什么二战时的日本要侵略这么多国家?

以下是评论翻译

Quora User, Reader【最高票的回答】
The short version: Japan’s actions from 1852 to 1945 were motivated by a deep desire to avoid the fate of nineteenth century China and become a great power.

简单的原因是:从1852年至1945年间日本积极行动,迫切渴望避免遭遇19世纪中国的噩运,并且演变为一个强国。

For Japan, the Second World War grew from a conflict historians call “the Second Sino-Japanese War.” The Second Sino-Japanese War began in earnest in 1937 with a battle called “the Marco Polo Bridge Incident.” However, before this, there had been years worth of border clashes between the Japanese and the Chinese, these having started with the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria. So to explain Japan’s behavior in the years from 1941 to 1945, we have to explain why Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931, and in order to do this, we have to go back to 1853.

对于日本,二战始于被历史学家称为”二次中日战争”的一场冲突。即二次中日战争开始于1937年初的一次被称为”卢沟桥事变”的战斗。然而,在此之前,中日之间已有多年的边境冲突,始于1931年日本入侵满洲。所以要解释日本在1941年至1945年间的行为,我们必须解释为何1931年日本要入侵满洲,并且首先我们要回到1853年。

So, before 1852, Japan was isolationist. Contact with the west was limited to trade with the Dutch in the city of Nagasaki[1] – Westerners otherwise weren’t allowed in the country and western influences were strongly discouraged.[2] In 1853, Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the United States Navy steamed into what we now call Tokyo Bay. The Japanese told him to leave and go to Nagasaki. He ignored the directive and was surrounded by the Japanese fleet. He presented a counter-demand to have a letter from US President Millard Fillmore presented to the de facto ruler of Japan at the time, the Shogun. When this demand was not met, he shelled a few buildings in the harbor. The letter was presented. Perry returned a year later to sign the Convention of Kanagawa, a treaty that opened the Japanese ports of Shimoda (a city between Kyoto and what we now call Tokyo and was then called Edo) and Hakodate (located on the northern island of Hokkaido) to US trade. The terms were dictate by the Americans, the Japanese had little choice but to agree, seeing that they were seriously technologically outmatched.
因此,1852年前,日本还在闭关锁国。与西方之间仅限于在长崎与荷兰进行贸易往来。另外,禁止西方人进入国内,并且西方影响也极小。1853年,美国海军派瑞准将的军舰驶入现在我们所称的东京湾。日本人要求他离开,去往长崎。他没有重视这个指令,因此被日本舰队围困。他并未就范,反而要求给当时的日本实际统治者幕府将军送呈一封美国总统菲尔摩尔的信函。这一请求未得到允许,因此他向港湾内的建筑开了几炮。随后,日方接受了信函。一年后,派瑞重回故地,与日方签署了神奈川协定,该协定要求日本人开放下田(京都和现在被我们称作东京当时称为江户的一个城市)和下馆市(位于九州岛北部)的几个港口,与美国开展贸易。协定完全被美方操纵,而日本人除了同意别无选择,因为他们在技术上极为落后。

This is where modern Japanese history begins. The importance of Perry’s missions to Japan in the 1850’s really can’t be overstated. While Japan had previously thought itself to be a strong country, Perry’s actions and the signing of treaties widely viewed in Japan as unequal destroyed this image. While Japan’s isolation had allowed the Japanese to think that they might escape the fate the Chinese were suffering,[3] the end of this isolation gave lie to that idea.

这开启了现代日本历史。十九世纪50年代派瑞使团给日本带来的重要影响怎么夸大都不为过。日本之前曾认为自己是一个强国,但派瑞的做法以及签署的条约(在日本人看来非常不平等)打破了这个印象。而先前日本的封闭导致日本人认为他们或许能够逃脱中国的厄运。闭关锁国的结束改变了这种想法。

The Japanese were petrified that they’d go the same way China did, and it wasn’t very long before a reform movement got started. In 1868, this reform movement led to what we now call the Meiji Restoration. The Shogun was stripped of his power, which was then nominally placed back in the hands of the Emperor, but really into the hands of his advisers. In a very brief span of time, the feudal system that had governed Japanese society for centuries was abolished,[4] the military was reformed and the country was put on the path to industrialization.

将遭遇中国同样的困境令日本人目瞪口呆,因此没用多长时间日本便开启了改革步伐。1868年,这种改革运动导致了现在我们所称的明治维新。幕府将军被打倒,名义上天皇恢复掌权,但实际上权力掌握在天皇的幕僚手中。经历短暂一段时间,日本社会沿袭了几个世纪的封建制度彻底瓦解。改革了军队,并且整个国家走上了工业化道路。

The Japanese knew they had to catch up to the western powers or else risk getting stomped flat by them – which is what had happened to China – so they did a lot of imitation. Western style dress was widely adopted among the elites of the new society, the military was recreated along Clausewitzian lines, the parliament was something of a ripoff of the Prussian one, and so on and so forth.

日本人清楚他们必须赶上西方列强的脚步,否则危险将会把他们掀翻在地,就像中国所发生的一切,因此他们做了很多模仿西方的工作。新的社会中,精英们广泛接受了西装革履,按照克劳维茨的方式建设军队,某种程度上议会也照搬了普鲁士王国的格局,等等。

The thing is, if you’re trying to imitate a nineteenth century European power, you have to engage in imperialism – not engaging in colonialism made a country at the time look weak. In the case of nineteenth century Japan, the obvious target for imperialism was just across the Sea of Japan: Korea. By the 1890’s, Korea was actually seen as a massive liability for Japan: it had not reformed as Japan had, and unlike China, could feasibly be conquered by an interested western nation, which would have given an excellent staging ground for an invasion of Japan. Additionally, the Korean peninsula is rich in iron and coal, which if you’re a rapidly industrializing country in the 19th century, you need. Because Japan is not particularly rich in natural resources, it was particularly advantageous for them to have colonies. Not so advantageous for the colonized, but then again, colonialism isn’t designed for that anyway.

实际情况在于如果你试图仿效19世纪的欧洲列强,那么你不得不走向帝国主义,当时如果国家不对外实施殖民主义,就不可能变得强大。19世纪的日本,帝国主义侵略的明显目标便是跨越日本海,即侵略朝鲜。在19世纪80年代朝鲜实际上被视为是日本的一个不利因素,没有像日本一样进行改革,并且也不像中国,并且可能被某个西方强国征服并以此为跳板来入侵日本。此外,朝鲜半岛富含煤铁资源,这是19世纪一个要迅速实现工业化的国家所必须的。因为日本自然资源并不是特别富有,因此拥有殖民地对日本会特别有利。当然,对被殖民者来说是不利的,但是殖民政策又不是为被殖民者设计的。

The problem was that Korea was a Chinese tributary state: the Korean king paid tribute to the Chinese emperor. So while the Japanese could, and did, force the Koreans to sign some unequal treaties, the peninsula remained free of the Japanese. However, in 1894, the Chinese sent troops into Korea to help put down a rebellion, not notifying the Japanese before they did so. This was against a previous treaty, so the Japanese also sent in troops. Unsurprisingly, fighting broke out, leading to the 1894-1895 First Sino-Japanese War.

问题是朝鲜是中国的朝贡国,朝鲜国王要向中国皇帝纳贡。因此,即使日本确实迫使朝鲜签署了一些不平等条约,朝鲜半岛仍然没有驻有日本人。然而,1894年,中国未通知日本便派驻军队帮助朝鲜镇压叛乱。这种做法违背了之前的条约,因此日本也派出了军队。毫不奇怪,战事一触而发,导致了1894年~1895年的第一次中日战争。

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